Dr Emiko S. Kashima

Associate Professor

College of Science, Health and Engineering, School of Psychology and Public Health
Biological Science 2, Room 121, Melbourne (Bundoora)

T: +61 3 9479 3829
F: +61 3 9479 1956


BA SHU NE., PhD Illinois.

Membership of professional associations

Editor in Chief, Asian Journal of Social Psychology; Fellow, Association for Psychological Science; Fellow, International Academy for Intercultural Research; Member, Asian Association of Social Psychology, International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology; Society for Australasian Social Psychologists.

Area of study


Brief profile

Culture is a fundamental part of being humans and therefore, understanding of cultural influences on people and the mechanisms through which cultures change over time is vital for the knowledge of psychology. From this perspective, it is important to study cultural differences that are observable across national and linguistic groups around the world; unique cultures are reflected in people’s thought and behaviour patterns, and in their personal accounts of subjective experiences. We can also ask further questions about culture. For example, assuming that cultural differences are the consequence of human adaptation to diverse ecological environment, how are the cultural differences relate to environmental conditions, and moreover, how cultural change relates to environmental threats such as pathogen prevalence, natural disasters, the instability and rapid changes in the environment?

My research is inspired by the latter interest especially. Social psychologists have found that perceived threats stir people and perturb their behaviours in certain ways; the manner in which they react and return to their adapted state depends on many factors, including personalities which are based on individuals’ genetic makeup and personal history, and socio-cultural resources such as social support and cultural meanings shared by other people. My current research tries to understand the parameters of threat reactions by taking two approaches. The first approach examines individual’s reactions to the priming of death by borrowing the research paradigms of Terror Management Theory. This research is beginning to shed new light on very fast affective and neural responses that people make when they grapple with a threat, and how these responses depend on personal and socio-cultural factors. The second approach examines migrant adjustment. Immigrants and international students face the impacts of drastic environmental changes. The process of adjustment to the new life can inform us about the influence of various personal and socio-cultural factors such as cognitive style, sensitivities, social networks, and socio-cultural capitals.

Research interests

Social psychology

Culture, Psychological Threat, Acculturation

Recent publications

Research on Threats

Yanagisawa, K., Kashima, E. S., Moriya, H., Masui, K., Furutani, K., Nomura, M., Yoshida, H., & Ura, M. (2013). Non-conscious neural regulation against mortality concerns. Neuroscience Letters, 552, 35-39.

Gelfand, M. J., Raver, J. L., Nishii, L., Leslie, L. M., Lun, J., Lim, B. C., Duan, L., Almaliach, A., Ang, S., Arnadottir, J., Aycan, Z., Boehnke, K., Boski1, P., Cabecinhas, R., Chan, D., Chhokar, J., D’Amato, A., Ferrer, M., Fischlmayr, I. C., Fischer, R., Fülöp, M., Georgas, J., Kashima, E. S., Kashima, Y., Kim, K., Lempereur, A., Marquez, P., Othman, Z., Overlaet, B., Panagiotopoulou, P., Peltzer, K., Perez-Florizno, L. R., Ponomarenko, L., Realo, A., Schei, V., Schmitt, M., Smith, P. B., Soomro, N., Szabo, E., Taveesin, N., Toyama, M., Van de Vliert, E., Vohra, N., Ward, C., Yamaguchi, S. (2011). Differences between tight and loose cultures. Science, 332(6033), 1100-1104. DOI: 10.1126/science.1197754

Kashima, E. S., Beatson, R., Branchflower, S., Kaufmann, L., & Marques, M. D. (2014).  Mortality salience and cultural cringe: The Australian way of responding to thoughts of death. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45(10), 1534-1548. doi:10.1177/0022022114543521

Kashima, E. S. (2010). Culture and terror Management: What is “culture” in cultural psychology and Terror Management Theory? Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4, 164-173.

Kashima, E. S. (2008). The psychological process of coping with threat and its cultural maintenance function. In R. M. Sorrentino & S. Yamaguchi (Eds.), Handbook of Motivation and Cognition across Cultures (pp. 443-469). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Research on Acculturation

Kashima, E. S., & Sadewo, G. R. P. (in press). Need for cognitive closure and acculturation of international students: Recent findings and implications. In D. Jindal-Snape & B. Rienties (Eds.), Multi-dimensional transitions of international students to higher education. Oxon, UK: Routledge.

Kashima, E. S., Kent, S., & Kashima, Y. (2015). Life satisfaction in the new country: A multilevel longitudinal analysis of effects of culture and 5-HTT allele frequency distribution in country of origin. Social Cognitive Affective Neuroscience, 10(1), 50-54. Doi:10.1093/scan/nsu036

Kashima, E. S., & Abu-Rayya, H. (2014). Longitudinal association of cultural distance with psychological wellbeing among Australian immigrants from 49 countries. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45, 587-600. doi:10.1177/0022022113519857

Kashima, E. S., & Pillai, D. (2011). Identity development in cultural transition: The role of need for closure.Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42, 726-740. doi:10.1177/0022022110362749

Sakurai, T., McCall-Wolf, F., & Kashima, E. S. (2010). Building intercultural links: The impact of a multicultural intervention program on social ties of international students in Australia. Special issue on Applied Acculturation Research: Working with and for Communities. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34, 176-185.

Kashima, E.S., & Loh, E. (2006). International students’ acculturation: Effects of international, conational, and local ties and need for closure. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30, 471-485.


Kashima, Y., Kashima, E., & Kidd, E. (2014). Language and culture. Oxford Handbooks Online. Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology. DOI:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199838639.013.010

Taras, V., Sarala, R., Muchinsky, P., Kemmelmeier, M., Avsec, A., Aygun, Z. K., Coon, H. M., Dinnel, D., Gardner, W., Grace, S., Hardin, E., Hsu, S., Johnson, J., Kashima, E., Kolstad, A., Milfont, T., Oetzel, J., Okazaki, S., Probst, T., Sato, T., Shafiro, M., Singelis, T., Schwartz, S., & Sinclair, C. (2014). Opposite ends of the same stick? Multi-method test of the dimensionality of individualism and collectivism. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45, 213-245. DOI: 10.1177/0022022113509132

Kashima, Y., Bekkering, H., & Kashima, E. S. (2013). Communicative intentions can modulate the linguistic perception-action link. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 33-34.

Kashima, Y., Shi, J., Tsuchiya, K., Cheng, S. Y. Y., Chao, M. M. M., Kashima, E. S., & Shin, S. H. (2011). Globalization and folk theory of social change: How globalization relates to social perceptions about the past and future. Special issue “Social psychology of globalization” Journal of Social Issues, 67(4), 696-715.

Kashima, E. S., Hardie, E. A., Wakimoto, R., & Kashima, Y. (2011). Culture- and gender-specific implications of relational and collective contexts on spontaneous self-descriptions.  Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42,741-759. doi:10.1177/0022022110362754

Older publications

Matsumoto, D., Yoo, S. H., Nakagawa, S., & 37 Members of the Multinational Study of Cultural Display Rules (2008). Culture, emotion regulation, and adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 925-937.

Kashima, Y., Kashima, E. S., Kim, U., & Gelfand, M. (2006). Describing the social world: Object-centered versus process-centered descriptions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 388-396.

Kashima, Y., Kashima, E.S., Chiu, C-Y., Farsides, T., Gelfand, M., Hong, Y.Y., Kim, U., Strack, F., Worth, L., Yuki, Y., and Yzerbyt, V. (2005). Culture, essentialism, and agency: Are individuals universally believed to be more real entities than groups? European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 147-169.

Kashima, E. S., Halloran, M., Yuki, M., & Kashima, Y. (2004). The effects of personal and collective mortality salience on individualism: Comparing Australians and Japanese with higher and lower self-esteem. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 384-392.

Halloran, M., & Kashima, E. S. (2004). Social identity and worldview validation: The influence of ingroup identity primes on mortality salience effects. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 915-925.

Kashima, Y., Kokubo, T., Kashima, E. S., Boxall, D., Yamaguchi, S., & MacRae, K. (2004). Culture and self: Are there within-culture differences in self between metropolitan areas and regional cities? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 816-823.

Kashima, Y., & Kashima, E. S. (2003). Individualism, GNP, and pronoun drop: Is individualism determined by climate and economic affluence, or does language use play a role? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34, 125-134.

Kashima, Y., Woolcock, J., & Kashima, E. S. (2000). Group impressions as dynamic configurations: The tensor product model of group impression formation and change. Psychological Review, 107, 914-942.

Kashima, E. S., & Hardie, E. A. (2000). Development and validation of the relational, individual, and collective self-aspects (RIC) scale. Journal of Asian Social Psychology, Special Issue on Culture and Self, 3, 19-48.

Kashima, E. S., & Kashima, Y. (1998). Culture and language: The case of cultural dimensions and personal pronoun use. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 29, 461-486.

Kashima, E. S., & Kashima, Y. (1993).  Perceptions of general variability of social group. Social Cognition, 11, 1-21.

Kashima, Y., Siegal, M., Tanaka, J., & Kashima, E. S. (1992).  Do people believe behaviours are consistent with attitudes?  Towards a cultural psychology of attribution processes.  British Journal of Social Psychology, 31, 1-14.

Research projects

  1. Cognive/motivational/ affective processes of coping with threats
  2. Existential neuroscience
  3. Co-evolutionary dynamics of culture and social structure (DP13011845) 2013-5
  4. Acculturation of immigrants and international students
  5. Australian identity and cultural practices - especialy, the linguistic practice of hypocoristics.
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